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BOM ecological management based on PDM

1 preface

information construction has become the only way for modern enterprises to rapidly enhance their core competitiveness and achieve leapfrog development. Today, enterprises no longer pursue the informatization of single point and local application, but pay more and more attention to the overall informatization of application integration, process optimization and information sharing

in manufacturing enterprises, BOM runs through the process of product conceptual design, detailed design, process planning, prototype trial production, processing and manufacturing, sales and maintenance until the product dies. With the advancement of enterprise information construction, BOM has become the core of enterprise product data management and the basis and bridge for data integration between application information systems. BOM management has become the main content of enterprise engineering informatization and management informatization

As a product data management system, PDM is not only the only system for centralized, unified and shared data source management, but also the preferred integrated framework platform for overall informatization. Through the extension and extension of PDM functions, the upstream engineering design system (e.g. cax/eda/capp) is linked to the downstream production and management system (e.g. erp/mes/scm), so as to open up the design, production and management processes and realize the full life cycle management of products

if an enterprise implements PDM, it does not necessarily mean that it can manage the BOM well. Moreover, even if the BOM is managed well, if the BOM cannot be managed well, the BOM management is blind and useless. In reality, there is no lack of this example. Some enterprises do not do well in BOM management, which makes PDM become a general electronic drawing document management system, just like "shooting mosquitoes with cannons". The BOM data managed by some enterprises' PDM is incomplete and inaccurate. Even if the operating pressure is only 1% of 15MPa, it also greatly affects the authority and credibility of the PDM data source, making other systems not easy to use, just like chicken ribs

2 bom

2.1bom concept

bom (bill of materials) is called Bill of materials. It is a technical description document of product structure. It describes the structural relationship and quantity relationship of a product, and is used to reflect which parts and components a product is composed of and the relationship between these parts and components

The reference to

bom comes from the early MRP system. As we all know, ERP takes production as the core, and the core of production is MRP. The key technology to realize MRP is bom. Nowadays, almost all mainstream engineering design and product management systems have introduced BOM without exception

The concept of

bom is also more extensive. The form of BOM is no longer limited to the list file formed by summary statistics in the early days. It now generally refers to any data representing product structure, such as product structure tree, parts list of drawings, product parts list and assembly relationship table of database

2.2 BOM contents

bom has different contents in different periods and different application fields in the product life cycle, mainly including:

design BOM

design BOM is a BOM generated by the design department for product design according to customer orders or design requirements. Generally, it comes from the title block and parts list information in the design drawing

a) historical BOM and new design BOM are divided according to the generation period. Historical BOM is the description of historical products of an enterprise. It is also the basic source data that supports design reuse and improvement and enables rapid development of new products

b) it is divided into circuit design BOM, structure design BOM and software design BOM according to the disciplines or tools generated. Nowadays, product design is often the integration of mechanical, electrical, software and other disciplines. Due to different design disciplines or tools, their own design BOMs are formed and finally collected into product design BOMs

process bom

process bom is a BOM generated by the process design department according to the processing level and capacity of the factory and based on the design BOM, making process plans and process information

purchase BOM

purchase BOM is a BOM generated by the material supply department by summarizing the raw materials, components, standard parts and complete sets of components to be purchased according to the production requirements based on the design BOM

manufacturing BOM

manufacturing BOM is the BOM obtained by the manufacturing department after detailed design of the process, processing and assembly steps according to the design or process bom

cost BOM

cost BOM is a BOM generated by the product pricing department based on the design or manufacturing BOM according to the product price composition and accounting method defined by the enterprise. It is used for cost control, cost analysis and product quotation

sales BOM

sales BOM is a BOM generated by selecting product structure according to user requirements. Sales BOM generally comes from the serialized and parameterized design BOM in PDM through product configuration management

repair BOM

repair BOM is a BOM generated by the product after-sales service department according to the repair requirements

3 PDM based BOM ecological management

3.1 PDM BOM management

bom management is the foundation and core of the entire PDM product management. It is closely related to enterprise business and needs to rely on PDM's own product structure management, product configuration management, CAD Integrated interface management, data report management and other functions to achieve comprehensive business management

to sum up, PDM BOM management mainly implements the following contents and requirements:

3.1.1 define bom

no matter how the content and form of BOM change, the essence of BOM is to describe product objects and the structural relationship between product objects. Therefore, the BOM definition function should include the definition of product object and product structure relationship. Among them, the definition of product object mainly includes: classification of product object, basic attributes, unified product code (including codes of self-made parts and purchased parts respectively), document associated with product object and product document relationship, etc. The main contents of product structure relationship definition include: structure relationship classification, relationship attributes (such as quantity, unit, transfer information, owner, etc.) and validity configuration relationship. Defining BOM requires the support of relevant management rules, such as drawing number management, new equipment purchase and coding management, material optimization library management, standard parts and common parts management, transfer management, design change management, etc

3.1.2 maintain BOM

maintain BOM functions specifically include maintaining product object and product structure relationships. Once the BOM definition is defined in PDM, it is quite simple to maintain a product object or a product structure relationship. However, due to the complexity of the product, the product BOM often contains thousands of pieces of information. If the simple operation is repeated thousands of times, it is almost impossible to avoid mistakes. Therefore, BOM maintenance must be carried out through automated tools as much as possible to avoid or reduce manual operations and prevent errors from being introduced due to human factors and misoperations. Since design BOMs generally come from design drawings, the key to maintaining BOMs is to properly handle CAD integration interfaces. At the same time, the BOM is dynamically developed in the product life cycle. Maintaining the BOM should be able to adapt to the requirements of change management and ensure that the BOM is accurate and complete at any time

3.1.3 using bom

using BOM function refers to making reasonable and effective use of BOM data sources managed by PDM and providing them to downstream process design, manufacturing and management systems through related data reports or system integration interfaces

3.2 ecology

the study of ecological environment of natural ecology believes that there is a relationship of interdependence, mutual restriction and mutual environment between organisms. Organisms provide symbiotic environment and conditions for other organisms with their own survival and development, and coexist in a symbiotic body for co evolution and optimization. In 1999, American social psychologists Bonnie RDI and vickil O'Day first put forward the concept of "information ecology". Chinese scholars wangdongyan and others believe that information ecology refers to an artificial system composed of information, people and environment with certain self-regulation ability. Information ecology has the characteristics of systematization, diversity, human nature, openness and dynamics

bom ecology is the reality of information ecology. BOM ecology includes people (BOM providers, managers and users respectively), information resources (paper or electronic BOM data, such as drawings, models, databases, detailed lists, etc.), environment (including computer network environment, CAX engineering design environment, application management environment represented by PDM and ERP, as well as enterprise organization structure, standard system, management system, development planning and corporate culture, etc.)

bom ecology has the general characteristics of information ecology. BOM ecological management also avoids one-sided or local thinking and solving problems from the perspective of a large system as a whole, fully considers the relationship between these elements and resources, straightens out the data flow, prevents isolated islands, creates harmony within the system, and realizes ecological development

3.3 PDM based BOM ecological management model

figure 1 PDM based BOM ecological management model

4 application practice

4.1 application background

a research institute has continuously promoted information construction since 2000. In terms of management system, the enterprise has a file management system for science and technology and comprehensive file management. There is a material management system for material procurement, contract, warehouse and cost management. There is a CAPP system for the process planning and design of the process department. MES system is available for workshop operation management, man hour quota management, job scheduling and scheduling, etc. Since 2002, the marginal cost of the Institute has been close to 0. The Institute has successively implemented phase I and phase II PDM systems based on Teamcenter enterprise, thus unifying the design tools of the Institute, including Protel99SE and pads for circuit design, Tsinghua Tianhe pccad for two-dimensional structure design, and SolidEdge for three-dimensional structure design

4.2 system framework

through years of construction and efforts, the Institute has basically established an enterprise information integration system centered on PDM. Relying on the system, the Institute has strengthened and realized BOM ecological management based on PDM

figure 2 A PDM based BOM ecological management system framework of an enterprise

4.3 main features description

1. Historical products are long-term accumulated technical achievements and valuable wealth, and are the foundation and source of product innovation and design. For research institutes with a history of more than 30 years, the Institute has accumulated a large amount of historical product data. Before PDM, the Institute managed the BOM of self-made parts of historical products through the file management system and the BOM of purchased parts of historical products through the material management system, with a total of more than 300000 assembly relationship records. To this end, the Institute has developed a special import tool, and organized several special personnel to export the self-made parts BOM and purchased parts BOM of the file system and the material system into Excel files in the specified format. After manual sorting, the product is imported into PDM in batches through the import tool

2. Develop the PDM interface program that is matched with Protel99SE, pads, pccad and SolidEdge. Through the interface program, the material code matching, parts list generation, drawing registration (import) and product structure import (the corresponding BOM is automatically created by the background of the interface program) are carried out. These interface programs support repeated import during process modification and design change. The design BOM of the product is automatically maintained by the interface program according to the title block, parts list or model of the drawing, completely replacing the manual operation. It is not only unnecessary to spend more money to improve the accuracy and efficiency, but also to ensure the absolute accuracy of the BOM

3. To support the integrated management of mechanical and electrical design BOM, and manage the BOM information of product accessories and tools. Add the definition of "using components" on the basis of the default "using components" assembly relationship in PDM to describe the relationship between circuit board assembly and components, fasteners, etc. used on the board

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